Statistics on Homophobia and Transphobia in Sport

This page shares the results from Out on the Fields (2015) and OutSport (2019), the first and second international studies on homophobia and transphobia in sport.

  • 12,000+ lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender participants from all EU countries and the United State, Canada, Australia, and NZ; 
  • Surveys gathered data on sport experiences and homophobic and transphobic attitudes, behaviors, and discrimination in sports;
  • Many of the results (e.g. witness language) were identical or similar. 

This page also links to other high-quality studies to support researchers, LGBTQ leaders, media, and sports organizations understand and write about homophobia and transphobia. We only link to studies which are free to read (no paywalls). Contact us to have your study listed.

 

 

LGB AND TRANS PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES IN SPORT. RESEARCHERS NEED TO REPORT DATA ON SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY SEPARATELY.

80% of both LGB and Straight people have witness or experienced homophobic behaviour in sport

43% of football fans have witnessed homophobic behavior while attending a game

51% of gay/bi males and 35% of lesbian/bi females aged 15-21 have been the target of homophobic behavior in sport.

73% of LGB and Straight people believe it is not safe for LGB people to come out to others in youth sport environments

Nearly 90% of LGBTQ people in 2019 believe homophobia and transphobia remain current problems in sport

More than half (54%) of male athletes admit to using homophobic slurs in the past two weeks, and most (69%) have heard teammates use slurs

RESEARCH LINKS

Out on the Fields - Five Year follow-up

 

 

Outsport Study

The OutSport study was backed by the European Union and released in 2019.

It is the first study on homophobia and transphobia in sport which collected data from 5524 LGBTQ+ people living in all European countries (Out on the Fields only included UK and Ireland).

  • Full report
  • Homophobia and transphobia in sport in Germany
  • Homophobia and transphobia in sport in Scotland
  • Homophobia and transphobia in sport in Italy 
  • Homophobia and transphobia in sport in Austria

Reviews and Syntheses of all research

  • Out on the Fields – Five Years Out (2020) published in the sport industry’s top journal (available on 3 Dec)
  • Peer-reviewed paper (2018) focused on research conducted on homophobia and transphobia in American college sports
  • Peer-reviewed paper (2020) which reviews all evidence on LGBTQ issues in sport by a panel for the American Medical Society for Sport Medicine
  • Final report (2017) UK Parliament Inquiry into Homophobia in Sport
  • Comprehensive review (2008) of all research on LGBT people in sport conducted for various UK Government agencies

Discrimination experienced by LGBTQ people

  • Peer-reviewed study (2020) on discrimination experienced by youth who ‘come out’
  • Peer-reviewed study comparing differences in bullying gay vs. straight – Italy
  • Experiences of LGBTQ Cricket players 
  • Equal Play Study – Victimization experiences in youth sport – Aus
  • Research Brief for Sport England
  • Research Brief (2020) from the Trevor Project – USA

Behavior of Straight Athletes

RESEARCH ON OTHER TOPICS

RESEARCH ARTICLES ON HOMOPHOBIA AND TRANSPHOBIA IN SPORT

Half of male athletes have recently used homophobic slurs

Studies conducted on three continents and in different sports find most male athletes have also heard teammates recently use homophobic slurs Key Takeaways Claims that homophobic language is rare whenever professional athletes such as Marcus Stoinis (above) are caught...

Homophobia in sport is a “critical public health issue”

Homophobia in sport is a “critical public health issue”

Scott Greenspan and his team of American researchers systematically reviewed and synthesized of all research they could find on the experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth and gender diverse youth in sport settings. Systematic reviews aim to find as much...

VIDEOS ON DISCRIMINATION